HISTORIA DE LA NAVIDAD PDF Imprimir E-mail
Escrito por Luz Divia Luna   

 

El día de Navidad es el 25 de diciembre, cuando se conmemora el Nacimiento de Jesucristo en Belén según los evangelios de San Mateo y San Lucas. Después de la Pascua de Resurrección es la fiesta más importante del año eclesiástico. 

Como los evangelios no mencionan fechas, no es seguro que Jesús naciera ese día. De hecho, el día de Navidad no fue oficialmente reconocido hasta el año 345, cuando por influencia de San Juan Crisóstomo y San Gregorio Nacianceno se proclamó el 25 de diciembre como fecha de la Natividad.

De esta manera seguía la política de la Iglesia primitiva de absorber en lugar de reprimir los ritos paganos existentes, que desde los primeros tiempos habían celebrado el solsticio de invierno y la llegada de la primavera.

La fiesta pagana más estrechamente asociada con la nueva Navidad era el Saturnal romano, el 19 de diciembre, en honor de Saturno, dios de la agricultura, que se celebraba durante siete días de bulliciosas diversiones y banquetes. Al mismo tiempo, se celebraba en el Norte de Europa una fiesta de invierno similar, conocida como Yule, en la que se quemaban grandes troncos adornados con ramas y cintas en honor de los dioses para conseguir que el Sol brillara con más fuerza.

Edad Media, Nacimiento y villancicos

Una vez incorporados estos elementos, la Iglesia añadió posteriormente en la Edad Media el nacimiento y los villancicos a sus costumbres. En esta época, los banquetes eran el punto culminante de las celebraciones. Todo esto tuvo un abrupto final en Gran Bretaña cuando, en 1552, los puritanos prohibieron la Navidad. Aunque la Navidad volvió a Inglaterra en 1660 con Carlos II, los rituales desaparecieron hasta la época victoriana

Siglo XIX, Árbol y postales de Navidad

La Navidad, tal como la conocemos hoy, es una creación del siglo XIX. El árbol de navidad, originario de zonas germanas, se extendió por otras áreas de Europa y América. Los villancicos fueron recuperados y se compusieron muchos nuevos (la costumbre de cantar villancicos, aunque de antiguos orígenes, procede fundamentalmente del siglo XIX). Las tarjetas de navidad no empezaron a utilizarse hasta la década de 1870, aunque la primera de ellas se imprimió en Londres en 1846.

Santa Claus y el Espíritu de Navidad

La familiar imagen de Santa Claus, con el trineo, los renos y las bolsas con juguetes, es una invención estadounidense de estos años, aunque la leyenda de Papá Noel sea antigua y compleja, y proceda en parte de San Nicolás y una jovial figura medieval, el espíritu de navidad.

Navidad Hoy día

Actualmente, la Navidad es tiempo de gran actividad comercial e intercambio de regalos, reuniones y comidas familiares.

En Occidente se celebra la Misa del gallo en iglesias y catedrales. En los países de América Latina, de arraigada tradición católica, se celebra especialmente la Nochebuena (24 de diciembre) con una cena familiar para la que se elaboran una diversidad de platos, postres y bebidas tradicionales.

También se acostumbra asistir a la Misa del gallo y celebrar con cohetes y fuegos artificiales.

Misa del Gallo es el final de un largo cúmulo de celebraciones propias de la vigilia del solsticio de invierno, a imagen y semejanza de la vigilia del solsticio de verano, la de San Juan. Es una fiesta solar en la que en su día el fuego jugó un papel primordial, igual que en la vigilia de San Juan. El que esta celebración acabase siendo una Misa, es un triunfo de la disciplina eclesiástica sobre la libertad y hasta el libertinaje de las celebraciones profanas.

 Navidad

La Navidad se celebra litúrgicamente con tres misas: la de medianoche, la del alba y la del mediodía, que cubren todo el desarrollo de los festejos navideños. En esta noche en que se celebraba el despertar del sol (es cuando empieza a alargar el día), no se debía dormir, sino que había que pasarse toda la noche de fiesta. Con el cristianismo esas fiestas se cristianizaron, siendo el nuevo eje de la misma Jesús recién nacido.

Otro de los protagonistas de esta misa tan festiva, y que podía llegar a durar horas, era el gallo, que es el que pudo dar nombre a esta misa. Por empezar, esta misa no se celebraba a medianoche como ahora, sino al alba. De hecho, esta celebración antes de llamarse misa, se llamó maitines (el primer rezo litúrgico, que se hace al rayar el alba), y estaba amenizada con el canto del gallo (uno solo) que se llevaba a misa con este objetivo. Cada canto del gallo era celebrado con gran jolgorio y alborozo. En estas singulares misas hasta se comía y se bebía, bajo la vigilante mirada del sacerdote, que presidía la "misa" y procuraba introducir en ella todos los elementos religiosos que era posible.

Otro nombre que tuvo esta celebración nocturna de la Navidad (y aún se conserva en las Baleares) es la de Calenda. Se llamaba así a la lectura de las vidas de los santos importantes que se celebraban a lo largo del año. Estas calendas en las mayores solemnidades se acompañaban de representación sacra, cantada y bastante festiva. La de Navidad era la Calenda por antonomasia. De ahí vino el nombre de calendario, que era el listado de las calendas (es decir de las fiestas religiosas) del año.

He ahí un recorrido por las formas más arcaicas de la celebración de la Vigilia de la Navidad, que se fue haciendo cada vez más seria y formal, hasta convertirse en Misa del Gallo. El apellido de esta misa es el único resto que nos queda de la antigua informalidad de esta misa, que de hecho era una vigilia de formato muy honesto, con profunda marca religiosa, que se fue acentuando cada vez más.

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